Year of survey

The year of the JPSC survey is indicated by “p + number”. This number is a serial number counting from the first survey (1993).

The initial survey

The term “initial survey” in the codebook refers to the first year the respondent participated in the ongoing survey. Please note that the year of the first survey varies for each cohort ( ref ), and the term does not necessarily refer to the first JPSC survey (1993). In the first survey, we ask a number of questions that are not asked consistently every year, such as information about your own educational and work history before you participate in the survey.

Married and unmarried

The JPSC questionnaire can be divided into two main types: married and unmarried. Most of the questions are the same for both questionnaires, but there are some questions that are asked only to those who are married or only to those who are not married, and some questions are formatted differently for both questionnaires. To find out whether the respondent is married or unmarried, please refer to Marital status .


All respondents to the JPSC will be women. Therefore, ”spouse” refers to “husband”.


For those who got married during the survey period, an additional questionnaire (Newlywed Questionnaire) was distributed to them in addition to the main Married Questionnaire. The Newlywed Questionnaire contains questions about the cost of marriage and basic information about spouses and their parents.

Data files (csv)

The JPSC data is contained in five CSV files for each year. The string (e.g., p1_1) in the “Collection Sheet” section of the variable name page corresponds to the name of the CSV file of the provided data, and the variable is included in that CSV file. This information can also be used to find out how many of the surveys contain the items that the variable represents.

Overflow code

Since the JPSC stores data in a fixed-length format, the number of digits that each variable can have is predetermined. If a respondent has entered a value that exceeds that digit, the number listed here is assigned

No response code

This number is assigned to responses that were not completed for the question to be answered. Please note, however, that if the question itself does not need to be answered, for example, if you do not meet the eligibility criteria, you will be assigned a blank.

Unclassifiable response code

The JPSC is a self-administered survey using the visiting detention method. The JPSC is a self-administered survey using a home visit method, and there are situations where the respondents do not understand how to answer, and some of them do not answer directly, but leave an explanation of their situation outside the box. This code was assigned when the JPSC implementer could not determine which option code to assign the entry to.

Variables not on the questionnaire (composite variables)

JPSC datasets contain composite variables that are not directly queried by the questionnaire but are instead constructed from responses to multiple questions.These composite variables are constructed from direct response variables. Please refer to each composite variable’s page(presence/absence of partner, regions, city/district size, life stage ( entry of eldest child into school, departure of youngest child from school), academic achievement of respondent, academic achievement of spouse, family composition, spouse’s annual/monthly income bracket, change in marital status, change in occupation, change in residence)for information regarding the content and construction method for each variable.